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Evaluating the total-factor efficiency of E3 in oil-producing countries, with emphasis on education
Type Article
Total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) Oil-producing countries Economic efficiency Environmental efficiency DEA Luenberger productivity indicator
Abstract Global warming is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. Overcoming this problem requires a global determination in energy management and a significant reduction in the use of fossil fuels worldwide. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of education in economic growth and to evaluate the total-factor energy, economic and environmental efficiency (E3) of oil-producing countries and productivity changes between 2000 and 2019. These countries were divided into two categories of middle- and high-income ones. The panel data model was used to estimate the role of education in the countries’ economic growth, and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method was used to measure their total-factor efficiency (E3). The findings indicate that education has a positive role in economic growth. In general, Norway proved to be efficient in all indicators of e1, e2, e3, and E3. The worst performance in e1 belonged to Canada (0.45) and Saudi Arabia (0.45); in e2, to Algeria (0.67) and Saudi Arabia (0.73); in e3, to the USA (0.04) and Canada (0.08); and in E3, to Canada (0.46), Saudi Arabia (0.48), and the USA (0.64). The average total-factor efficiency of all indicators for the selected countries was low. Average changes in total-factor productivity and technological changes for all the selected countries had decreased in e1 and e3 but improved in e2 and E3 during the studied period. The changes in technical efficiency also decreased during the period. Moving towards a low-carbon economy, developing creative and environment-friendly technologies, more investment in clean and renewable energy, and creating diversity in production, especially for OPEC and countries with single-product economies, are some of the ways suggested for improving E3 efficiency in the countries.
Researchers Parviz Hajiani (First researcher) , Hojat Parsa (Second researcher) , Reza Jalali (Third researcher) ,