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Relationships between self-efficacy and personal hardiness and pain self-efficacy in Persian Gulf University students
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Self-efficacy beliefs are used to explain a range of behaviors and aspects of the pain experience. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and psychological hardiness with pain self-efficacy in students. This study was descriptive and of correlation type. This study's sample consists of 167 students of Persian Gulf University who were selected randomly. The research tools consist of Nicholas pain self-efficacy questionnaire, Morris pain self-efficacy questionnaire and Kobasa psychological hardiness. Correlation coefficient results showed that there was a significant separate correlation between each of independent variable (the variable of academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy, and psychological hardiness) with dependent variables (pain self-efficacy). The results of regression analysis showed that the best predictors of pain self-efficacy were psychological hardiness, emotional self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, respectively. Totally the results of regression analysis with the amount RS= 0.34, F=17.89 and p< 0.001 were significant and revealed that the multiple relationship of predictor variables with the criterion variable was approved. The results suggest that the psychological hardiness and emotional self-efficacy play very effective role in dealing with aches and pains for students.
Researchers Golestaneh Seyed Mousa (First researcher)